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MHS Library | Extended Investigation (VCE)

Introduction and Literature Review

A hook is an opening sentence that attempts to grab the reader's attention so that they want to read on. 

Examples for hooks commonly used in EI are; Advice, Definition, Dilemma (presented via a question), Rhetorical Question, Statistic.

See examples of hooks

You may wish to include 2 sections in your introduction - Introduction and Literature Review

or combine both and call the section either - Introduction or Literature Review

Why use 2 sections ? Introduction - if you are using anecdotal evidence or a narrative to introduce your research which you want in a stand alone paragraph, that separates it from the Literature Review.

Not all Introductions follow exactly the same order, but if you have decided to include a stand alone Introduction or include it in paragraph(s) at the beginning of your Literature Review, it should contain the following;

  • a broad introduction to the topic, including relevant background information and definitions of the relevant terms
  • information that is relevant for your specific topic, for example abbreviations
  • explain the significance of your topic 

The Literature Review is then structured in a logical and coherent way. This is the body - or bulk of your information. Consider the most logical order to discussion. When drafting you may wish to create sub-headings for the body paragraphs of your Literature Review to assist you in creating a logical structure. You can remove these sub-headings when submitting the final draft.

There are numerous ways to organise your body paragraphs. You may want to organise some of your paragraphs in chronological order, e.g. historical findings, more recent findings, current research. You may want to group your literature sources into paragraphs based on similar arguments or findings. Another method of organising your body paragraphs is to group papers together that have found different or contradictory results.

The Literature Review should have as a minimum concluding sentences. 

There are several conventions to note when you are writing your Literature Review concluding sentences:

  • It is important that you do not include new information. Instead, you need to highlight the key points raised in the earlier sections of your Literature Review.
  • In-text citations are not usually included in your concluding sentences. You are paraphrasing the points in the Literature Review body paragraphs.
  • Can your concluding sentence complete a circle for the reader? Taking the reader back to the anecdotal? the narrative? the broad introduction?

Stand-alone literature review. (2020, December 10). Research & Learning Online.

Both the Introduction and the Literature Review will use references to literature.

An anecdotal or narrative reference may appear bracketed at the end of the sentence(s), so as not to interrupt the flow for the reader.

The references to literature throughout the Literature Review will use a combination of styles. This guide from Monash has examples of numerous styles.