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MHS Library | How can chemical principles be applied to create a more sustainable future?

Investigation topic 1: Endangered elements in the periodic table

Today’s chemists are involved in many branches of chemistry, covering all 118 elements in the periodic table. Some of these elements are now considered to be critical and endangered, particularly due to the prevalence of modern technologies that rely on many different scarce minerals. It has been estimated that 44 elements will soon be, or are already, facing supply limitations, making a future of continuing technological advancement uncertain.

Questions that may be explored in this investigation include:

· How is indium mined and used in the manufacture of products such as LCD screen televisions and computer monitors, mobile phones or photovoltaic panels, and what alternatives are available if indium becomes scarce?

Introduction to Indium

Overview, history and use

Indium - Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (2017).


The mining and use of Indium

The interactive map to show where Indium is mined across the globe.

Deposits of Indium

Indium. (2016).

Processing of indium: A review

Akram Alfantazi, & R.R. Moskalyk. (2003). Processing of indium: a review. Minerals Engineering16(8), 687–694.

The invisible technology demand for indium

North. (2021). The invisible technology demand for indium. North of 60 Mining News.

Indium – the everyday metal you never see

North. (2020). Indium – the everyday metal you never see. North of 60 Mining News.

How Indium is purchased and used

Quadsimia (2023). Indium Nexus | Versatile, Conductive, Malleable | Indium Corporation. Indium Corporation.


Indium alternatives

Research finds alternative to insufficient indium

Ballard, H. (2021, July 21). Research finds alternative to insufficient indium. Australian Mining.

Graphene: Almost The Ideal Replacement for Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)

AZoNano. (2014, December 19). Graphene: Almost The Ideal Replacement for Indium Tin Oxide (ITO).

Academic literature on indium