Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

MHS Library | How to cite and reference your sources (Monash University)

Websites and social media

Information from websites and social media (including blogs, newsgroups, online forums, Twitter and Facebook)


  • Use n.d. (no date) where no publication date is available.
  • Where no author is available, transfer the organisation behind the website, or the title, to the author space
  • for message board posts include exact date of posting

Web page or document on the world wide web


Format Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work. Retrieved from URL

Singh, L. (2011). The critcal decade: climate change and health. Retrieved from

Web page with no author



Name of organization in full. (Year of publication). Title of work. Retrieved from URL


Title of page or document. (Year of publication). Retrieved from URL


Australian Psychological Society. (2010). Bushfire resources: Psychological preparedness and recovery. Retrieved from

A pedagogy of listening. (2011) Retrieved from

Image from the Web

Format Artist last name, initial. (year). Title of work [Photograph]. Retrieved from URL

Sievers, W. (1966). Monash University [Photograph]. Retrieved from

Online forum, discussion group, or blog post

Format Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [description of form]. Retrieved from

Chee, C. (2010, January 10). The most important psychology article of the 21st century: The U.S. isn't discovering how mental illness works, it's spreading it worldwide [Web blog post]. Retrieved from http//

Social media:

Online posts from social media such as Facebook and Twitter are generally not considered to be of a scholarly nature. As such they are not covered specifically in the APA style manual.  You need to provide enough information for your reader to be able to access the information.  Generally this will include the author or user name, date (if available), title of post, the type of post in square brackets (e.g [Facebook update] or [Twitter feed]), the retrieval date and the URL.  Note: due to the nature of social media being a live update format and not about archiving, some of these pages may become inaccessible in the future.


Format Username or Group Name. (Yr, Mth, Day). Post title [Page type]. Retrieved Month, Day, Year, from

BarackObama. (2009a, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: [Twitter post]. Retrieved July 15, 2009, from


Format Username or Group Name. (Yr, mth, day.). Update title [Page type]. Retrieved Month, Day, Year, from

Barack Obama. (2009b, October 9). Humbled. [Facebook update]. Retrieved October 11, 2009, from id=6815841748&share_id=154954250775&comments=1#s154954250775<./p>