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MHS Library | How to cite and reference your sources (Monash University)

What is Turabian?

The Turabian style is a citing and referencing system based on the Chicago style and named after Kate Turabian, from the University of Chicago, who authored a manual to guide students in citing and referencing when writing research papers. The print manual is available from all Monash libraries: 

Two forms of Turabian

There are two forms of the Turabian style:

1. Notes (eg footnotes) + Bibliography: used in Fine Arts and commonly referred to as bibliography style. TAD1101 students use this form.


2. Parenthetical citations + Reference list: used in Design disciplines and commonly referred to as reference-list style. The parenthetical citations are often referred to as "author-date" or "in-text" citations.

These styles are essentially the same as those presented in the Chicago Manual of Style 16th ed.

Note: This guide provides examples of form no. 1 (Notes + Bibliography). Refer to the manual for the second form.

General notes for Notes-Bibliography style

Superscript number:

  • Cited sources are indicated in your text by a superscript number placed at the end of the sentence, and after the full stop, in which you refer to that source. 1


  • Full source information (author, title, publication details, page numbers) is given in a correspondingly numbered note at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or in a list at the end of your paper (endnotes).
  • Full source details are given the first time a source is noted but abbreviated in subsequent references.
  • Use Ibid. (a Latin term meaning "in the same place") for a source repeated directly after the one before.
  • Use a shortened form when a source is subsequently repeated (but not consecutively).
  • If a source has multiple authors, list all authors (up to 3); for 4 or more authors list the first name followed by et al. (John Smith et. al.)
  • Notes may be used for commentary on the cited sources or other substantive information on the text.


  • Also list all your sources, at the end of your paper, in a bibliography.
  • The bibliography includes every source you cited in a note and may include others you consulted but did not cite.
  • Each bibliography entry includes the same information contained in the note but in a slightly different form.
  • The bibliography is normally a single list of all sources arranged alphabetically by the last name of the author or editor.
  • If a source does not have a named author, list it by the title (ignore articles such as a or the).
  • If a source has multiple authors list all names, regardless of how many.
  • List the surname first for the first author, but the first names first for the other authors.
  • If there are two or more works written by the same author, arrange the works by title (ignore articles such as a or the). For all entries after the first, replace the author's name with a long dash called a 3-em dash.


  • The first line of notes are indented like other paragraphs in the text; all following lines are flush left.
  • Bibliography entries have a hanging indentation - the first line is flush left and following lines are indented the same space as paragraphs.