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MHS Library | Referencing

Can I cite AI as an author?

Information from any AI source cannot be cited as an author because an AI tool cannot take responsibility for the content and findings reported (Source: European Network for Academic Integrity (ENAI))


There are two steps you need when citing your use of AI in submitted work at MHS:

'Referencing' content generated by generative AI which you've used in your work for a submission, just as you would create a citation for an idea or text from information from a source.

'Acknowledging' describes how you have used generative AI in the process of creating your work for submission.

CHECK with your teacher. Teachers may grant different permissions for different assignments, so be sure to follow your teachers' guidance.

MHS recommends you include a declaration of the generated material you sourced from AI (according to Monash University guidelines):


MHS guide to citing AI

Melbourne High School follows the Monash University referencing guide for AI.

As generative artificial intelligence is an emerging technology, there is a lot of debate about how to incorporate it into existing referencing systems, since it differs from other academic sources, as there is no specific author and it is currently not able to be reproduced or recovered.  

MHS follows the Monash University recommendation that a combination of the following should be used to acknowledge the use of AI in academic work:

  • Written acknowledgment of the use of AI and its extent;
  • Descriptions of how the information was generated (including the prompts used); and
  • Citing and referencing using closest source types in the style being used (e.g., artificial intelligence or non-recoverable sources - see below).

Currently, there are few guidelines around the rules of in-text citations for the use of Generative AI, however APA 7th has some guidelines around referencing generative AI. 


Prompt: Was Sir John Monash a good man?

“Sir John Monash is widely regarded as one of Australia's greatest military leaders and is also considered a respected engineer and administrator. His contributions to the military and to society as a whole have been praised by many, so it can be said that he was a good man. However, as with any historical figure, opinions may vary…..” (OpenAI, January 24, 2023)


OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Jan 9 version) [Large language model]

According to APA guidelines, nonrecoverable sources which cannot be accessed, are omitted from the reference list because readers cannot retrieve the source. Content generated by AI technologies is a nonrecoverable source because inputting the same prompt will result in a different output each time, therefore a reference list entry is not required in APA. However, as with all uses of AI technology, a declaration will be required.