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Writing: Academic writing
This is the online resource page for the Melbourne High School co-curricular group, Writing Interest Group (WIG). These resources are also useful for the teaching and learning of English.
It uses grammatically correct sentences and punctuation.
It appears neutral and avoids emotional language.
It avoids conversational words: you know, things like,stuff and abbreviations: can’t, won’t, doesn’t, shouldn’t.
It uses verbs that avoid expressions of absolute certainty such as: give the impression of, tend to, appear to be, consider, think, doubt, indicate, recommend, show.
Your view is the basis of your argument BUT you need to back up your position with evidence from academic sources.
It demonstrates analysis and evaluation of arguments from recent academic evidence.
It presents your ideas and evidences in a logical and progressive manner.
It contains a bibliography.
There are many ways to introduce an academic essay or short paper. Most academic writers, however, appear to do one or more of the following in their introductions:
establish the context, background and/or importance of the topic
present an issue, problem, or controversy in the field of study
define the topic and/or key terms used in the paper
state the purpose of the essay or short paper
provide an overview of the coverage and/or structure of the writing
Slightly less complex introductions may simply inform the reader: what the topic is, why it is important, and how the writing is organised. In very short assignments, it is not uncommon for a writer to commence simply by stating the purpose of their writing.
Introductions to research dissertations and theses tend to be relatively short compared to the other sections of the text but quite complex in terms of their functional elements. Some of the more common elements include:
establishing the context, background and/or importance of the topic
giving a brief review of the relevant academic literature
identifying a problem, controversy or a knowledge gap in the field of study
stating the aim(s) of the research and the research questions or hypotheses
providing a synopsis of the research design and method(s)
explaining the significance or value of the study
defining certain key terms
providing an overview of the dissertation or report structure