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Bibliography: How to use Harvard referencing system

Referencing styles; creating a bibliography

Record all your information as you go to avoid problems!

While you are reading the literature during your research process, make sure you record all of the information necessary to create your bibliography later. We strongly encourage you to do this as you go, in order to save you time and frustration later on. 

The data you record should include:

-Edition (1st, 2nd, reprint ed. revised ed. etc.)
-Page numbers for direct quotations
-Place of publication
-Date of publication
-Web address if online resources and Date Accessed 

You may decide to maintain a master reference list on your computer in a separate document or as a database.

You may wish to write all details on the print copy of an article or keep a system of filing cards for each reference item you use.

(This information has been paraphrased from The UCL Institute of Education Libguides)

Reference list or bibliography?

At the end of your essay or assignment you are expected to provide a list of references or bibliography. At university you will also have to use in-text citations.

Make sure you balance your use of direct quotations, paraphrasing and summarising.

There is a  difference between a reference list and bibliographya bibliography provides a detailed list of references but it also includes readings you may have consulted and not cited.  It is therefore a larger group of works than a reference list. Sometimes this list will be annotated to tell the reader why the author considers the work worthy to be in the bibliography.  This is an annotated bibliography.

In most cases at the secondary school level, if you are asked for a bibliography, you will technically be creating a reference list - if you haven’t cited it, don’t list it in your references.

Reference lists (bibliographies) must be in alphabetical order of the first author’s surname.


(This information has been paraphrased from guides created by UCL and Monash University.)

How to reference everything

The UCL Institute of Education Library has an extremely comprehensive and current list of examples for referencing.

These include: book, chapter of a book, comic, computer game, DVD, ebook, Facebook, graffiti, interview, map, musical score, newspaper article, pamphlet, mathematical equation, podcast, poster, song lyrics, your own work, television program, webpage and more.


How to reference a book

Authors (Year of Publication) Title of Book. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher.

e.g. Warnant, P., Arena, P., Burrows, K., Lofts, G. & Evergreen, M. (2009) Core Science Stage 5: Complete course. Milton, Qld: Jacaranda.

How to reference a website

Authors/Organisation (Year of Publication) Title of Website [Online] (date of the most recent update) Available at: URL [date of most recent acess].

e.g. Cooper, D. (2008) Scientists Sequence Kangaroo Genome [Online] (Updated 18 November 2008) Available at: science/articles/2008/11/18/2422599.htm [Accessed 30 January 2013].

Using the CiteThisForMe iPad app

Use the CiteThisForMe app to help you compile your reference list. 

Select the Harvard referencing style to ensure the correct format.

Make sure to double-check the CiteThisForMe reference for any mistakes.